Amerika Indianer Neuer Abschnitt
Indianer ist die im Deutschen verbreitete Sammelbezeichnung für die indigenen Völker Amerikas bzw. deren Angehörige. Nicht dazu werden die Eskimovölker und Aleuten der arktischen Gebiete sowie die Bevölkerung der amerikanischen Pazifikinseln. Nach der Kolonisierung Amerikas reichte die Haltung hinsichtlich der indigenen Sprachen von. In Europa wurden die nordamerikanischen Indianer zu Beginn der Kolonialisierung Amerikas als „Wilde“, „Barbaren“ und „Heiden“ angesehen, die den Europäern. Die ersten Einwanderer Amerikas. Als vor etwa Jahren die erste eisfreie Landbrücke zwischen Sibirien und Alaska entstand, war dies der gängigen. Etwas indianische Folklore muss sein: Ein Native American bereitet sich während dem Tag der indigenen Völker in Randalls Island, New York.
Etwas indianische Folklore muss sein: Ein Native American bereitet sich während dem Tag der indigenen Völker in Randalls Island, New York. Indianer ist die im Deutschen verbreitete Sammelbezeichnung für die indigenen Völker Amerikas bzw. deren Angehörige. Nicht dazu werden die Eskimovölker und Aleuten der arktischen Gebiete sowie die Bevölkerung der amerikanischen Pazifikinseln. Amerikanische Indianer. Sammlung von BR • Zuletzt aktualisiert: vor 6 Wochen. Pins. •. Follower. «Wie viele andere weisse Amerikaner störte ihn gerade das Indianische an den Indianern», schreibt Mattioli. Jefferson prägte Washingtons. Indianer ist die Bezeichnung für die Ureinwohner Amerikas, welche den Kontinent bereits vor der einsetzenden Kolonisierung durch Europäer. In Kanada sagt man „First Nations“, also „erste Völker“, und in den USA „Amerikanische Indianer“ oder „Amerikanische Ureinwohner“. Früher. Amerikanische Indianer. Sammlung von BR • Zuletzt aktualisiert: vor 6 Wochen. Pins. •. Follower. Vor ist kein Indianer in den Genuß der Bürgerrechte gekommen. Noch verweigerten sieben Staaten den Indianern das Wahlrecht.
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Amerika Indianer Video
Barry ?. James Ayers specializes in images of Native Americans. Photographs from over a hundred years ago can open an amazing portal into the history.
But photos don't tell the whole story, and so much of what happene Post with views. He lived to be Apache woman. New Mexico:Arizona. Omer who yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honor of being first in their class.
So that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners have unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation.
Through the midth century the Beaver Wars were fought over the fur trade between the Iroquois and the Hurons , the northern Algonquians , and their French allies.
During the war the Iroquois destroyed several large tribal confederacies, including the Huron , Neutral , Erie , Susquehannock , and Shawnee , and became dominant in the region and enlarged their territory.
In , the Sisters of the Order of Saint Ursula founded Ursuline Academy in New Orleans , which is currently the oldest continuously operating school for girls and the oldest Catholic school in the United States.
From the time of its foundation, it offered the first classes for Native American girls, and would later offer classes for female African-American slaves and free women of color.
Those involved in the fur trade tended to ally with French forces against British colonial militias.
The British had made fewer allies, but it was joined by some tribes that wanted to prove assimilation and loyalty in support of treaties to preserve their territories.
They were often disappointed when such treaties were later overturned. The tribes had their own purposes, using their alliances with the European powers to battle traditional Native enemies.
Some Iroquois who were loyal to the British, and helped them fight in the American Revolution , fled north into Canada. For the next eighty to one hundred years, smallpox and other diseases devastated native populations in the region.
Smallpox epidemics in —82 and —38 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. It was the first federal program created to address a health problem of Native Americans.
With the meeting of two worlds, animals, insects, and plants were carried from one to the other, both deliberately and by chance, in what is called the Columbian Exchange.
Some of the horses escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. As Native Americans adopted use of the animals, they began to change their cultures in substantial ways, especially by extending their nomadic ranges for hunting.
The reintroduction of the horse to North America had a profound impact on Native American culture of the Great Plains.
King Philip's War , also called Metacom 's War or Metacom's Rebellion, was the last major armed  conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from to It continued in northern New England primarily on the Maine frontier even after King Philip was killed, until a treaty was signed at Casco Bay in April Some European philosophers considered Native American societies to be truly "natural" and representative of a golden age known to them only in folk history.
During the American Revolution , the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River.
Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, based both on their trading relationships and hopes that colonial defeat would result in a halt to further colonial expansion onto Native American land.
The first native community to sign a treaty with the new United States Government was the Lenape. In the Sullivan Expedition was carried out during the American Revolutionary War against the British and the four allied nations of the Iroquois.
George Washington gave orders that made it clear he wanted the Iroquois threat completely eliminated:. The Expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile tribes of the Six Nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents.
The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements, and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible.
It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and prevent their planting more. The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris , through which they ceded vast Native American territories to the United States without informing or consulting with the Native Americans.
The United States was eager to expand, develop farming and settlements in new areas, and satisfy land hunger of settlers from New England and new immigrants.
The national government initially sought to purchase Native American land by treaties. The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy.
George Washington and Henry Knox believed that Native Americans were equals but that their society was inferior. Washington formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process.
In the late 18th century, reformers starting with Washington and Knox,  supported educating native children and adults, in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Native Americans to the larger society as opposed to relegating them to reservations.
The Civilization Fund Act of promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies mostly religious who worked on Native American improvement.
Two epidemics of measles, one in and the other in , caused many deaths. The mortality rates were so high that the missions were constantly dependent upon new conversions.
During the California Gold Rush , many natives were killed by incoming settlers as well as by militia units financed and organized by the California government.
As American expansion continued, Native Americans resisted settlers' encroachment in several regions of the new nation and in unorganized territories , from the Northwest to the Southeast, and then in the West, as settlers encountered the Native American tribes of the Great Plains.
East of the Mississippi River, an intertribal army led by Tecumseh , a Shawnee chief, fought a number of engagements in the Northwest during the period —12, known as Tecumseh's War.
During the War of , Tecumseh's forces allied themselves with the British. After Tecumseh's death, the British ceased to aid the Native Americans south and west of Upper Canada and American expansion proceeded with little resistance.
In the s, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act of , a policy of relocating Indians from their homelands to Indian Territory and reservations in surrounding areas to open their lands for non-native settlements.
O'Sullivan coined the phrase, " Manifest Destiny ", as the "design of Providence" supporting the territorial expansion of the United States.
The Indian Appropriations Act of set the precedent for modern-day Native American reservations through allocating funds to move western tribes onto reservations since there were no more lands available for relocation.
Native American nations on the plains in the west continued armed conflicts with the U. Expressing the frontier anti-Indian sentiment, Theodore Roosevelt believed the Indians were destined to vanish under the pressure of white civilization, stating in an lecture:.
I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth.
One of the last and most notable events during the Indian wars was the Wounded Knee Massacre in Army's attempt to subdue the Lakota. The dance was part of a religious movement founded by the Northern Paiute spiritual leader Wovoka that told of the return of the Messiah to relieve the suffering of Native Americans and promised that if they would live righteous lives and perform the Ghost Dance properly, the European American colonists would vanish, the bison would return, and the living and the dead would be reunited in an Eden ic world.
At the outbreak of the war, for example, the minority party of the Cherokees gave its allegiance to the Confederacy, while originally the majority party went for the North.
In the 19th century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly.
Native Americans believed this forced relocation illegal, given the Treaty of Hopewell of As many as , Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian removal policy.
In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East. In practice, great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.
In , the Cherokee became the first Native Americans recognized as U. Under Article 8 of the Cherokee treaty, "Upwards of Cherokees Heads of Families in the honest simplicity of their souls, made an election to become American citizens".
After the American Civil War, the Civil Rights Act of states, "that all persons born in the United States, and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States".
Grant , ending United States recognition of additional Native American tribes or independent nations, and prohibiting additional treaties.
After the Indian wars in the late 19th century, the government established Native American boarding schools , initially run primarily by or affiliated with Christian missionaries.
The boarding school experience was a total immersion in modern American society, but it could prove traumatic to children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages.
They were taught Christianity and not allowed to practice their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Native American identities.
Before the s, schools on the reservations provided no schooling beyond the sixth grade. To obtain more, boarding school was usually necessary.
The " Indian New Deal " of the s closed many of the boarding schools , and downplayed the assimilationist goals. The Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps operated large-scale construction projects on the reservations, building thousands of new schools and community buildings.
The Navajo largely opposed schooling of any sort, but the other tribes accepted the system. There were now high schools on larger reservations, educating not only teenagers but also an adult audience.
There were no Indian facilities for higher education. They promoted traditional arts and crafts of the sort that could be conducted on the reservations, such as making jewelry.
The New Deal reformers met significant resistance from parents and teachers, and had mixed results. World War II brought younger Indians in contact with the broader society through military service and work in the munitions industries.
The role of schooling was changed to focus on vocational education for jobs in urban America. Since the rise of self-determination for Native Americans, they have generally emphasized education of their children at schools near where they live.
In addition, many federally recognized tribes have taken over operations of such schools and added programs of language retention and revival to strengthen their cultures.
Beginning in the s, tribes have also founded colleges at their reservations, controlled, and operated by Native Americans, to educate their young for jobs as well as to pass on their cultures.
On August 29, , Ishi , generally considered to have been the last Native American to live most of his life without contact with European-American culture, was discovered near Oroville, California.
Nearly 10, men had enlisted and served, a high number in relation to their population. On June 2, , U. Prior to passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.
He was very influential in the Senate. In he ran as the vice-presidential candidate with Herbert Hoover for president, and served from to He was the first person with significant Native American ancestry and the first person with acknowledged non-European ancestry to be elected to either of the highest offices in the land.
American Indians today in the United States have all the rights guaranteed in the U. Constitution , can vote in elections, and run for political office.
Controversies remain over how much the federal government has jurisdiction over tribal affairs, sovereignty, and cultural practices.
Mid-century, the Indian termination policy and the Indian Relocation Act of marked a new direction for assimilating Native Americans into urban life.
The census counted , Indians in and , in , including those on and off reservations in the 48 states. Some 44, Native Americans served in the United States military during World War II : at the time, one-third of all able-bodied Indian men from eighteen to fifty years of age.
Their fellow soldiers often held them in high esteem, in part since the legend of the tough Native American warrior had become a part of the fabric of American historical legend.
White servicemen sometimes showed a lighthearted respect toward Native American comrades by calling them "chief".
The resulting increase in contact with the world outside of the reservation system brought profound changes to Native American culture.
Indian Commissioner in , "caused the greatest disruption of Native life since the beginning of the reservation era", affecting the habits, views, and economic well-being of tribal members.
There were also losses as a result of the war. In addition, many more Navajo served as code talkers for the military in the Pacific.
The code they made, although cryptologically very simple, was never cracked by the Japanese. Military service and urban residency contributed to the rise of American Indian activism, particularly after the s and the occupation of Alcatraz Island — by a student Indian group from San Francisco.
In the same period, the American Indian Movement AIM was founded in Minneapolis , and chapters were established throughout the country, where American Indians combined spiritual and political activism.
Political protests gained national media attention and the sympathy of the American public. Through the mids, conflicts between governments and Native Americans occasionally erupted into violence.
Upset with tribal government and the failures of the federal government to enforce treaty rights, about Oglala Lakota and AIM activists took control of Wounded Knee on February 27, Indian activists from around the country joined them at Pine Ridge, and the occupation became a symbol of rising American Indian identity and power.
Federal law enforcement officials and the national guard cordoned off the town, and the two sides had a standoff for 71 days.
During much gunfire, one United States Marshal was wounded and paralyzed. In late April, a Cherokee and local Lakota man were killed by gunfire; the Lakota elders ended the occupation to ensure no more lives were lost.
In June , two FBI agents seeking to make an armed robbery arrest at Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a firefight, and killed at close range.
In , the government enacted the Indian Civil Rights Act. This gave tribal members most of the protections against abuses by tribal governments that the Bill of Rights accords to all U.
It resulted from American Indian activism, the Civil Rights Movement, and community development aspects of President Lyndon Johnson 's social programs of the s.
The Act recognized the right and need of Native Americans for self-determination. It marked the U. The U. Tribes have developed organizations to administer their own social, welfare and housing programs, for instance.
Tribal self-determination has created tension with respect to the federal government's historic trust obligation to care for Indians; however, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has never lived up to that responsibility.
Tensions immediately arose between two philosophies: one that the tribal colleges should have the same criteria, curriculum and procedures for educational quality as mainstream colleges, the other that the faculty and curriculum should be closely adapted to the particular historical culture of the tribe.
There was a great deal of turnover, exacerbated by very tight budgets. Congress passed legislation recognizing the tribal colleges as land-grant colleges , which provided opportunities for large-scale funding.
By the early 21st century, tribal nations had also established numerous language revival programs in their schools. In addition, Native American activism has led major universities across the country to establish Native American studies programs and departments, increasing awareness of the strengths of Indian cultures, providing opportunities for academics, and deepening research on history and cultures in the United States.
Native Americans have entered academia; journalism and media; politics at local, state and federal levels; and public service, for instance, influencing medical research and policy to identify issues related to American Indians.
It stated that the U. In , jurisdiction over persons who were not tribal members under the Violence Against Women Act was extended to Indian Country.
This closed a gap which prevented arrest or prosecution by tribal police or courts of abusive partners of tribal members who were not native or from another tribe.
Many lived in poverty. Racism, unemployment, drugs and gangs were common problems which Indian social service organizations such as the Little Earth housing complex in Minneapolis attempted to address.
The Census showed that the U. In addition, 2. Together, these two groups totaled 5. Thus, 1. According to Office of Management and Budget, "American Indian or Alaska Native" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America including Central America and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.
The census permitted respondents to self-identify as being of one or more races. Self-identification dates from the census of ; prior to that the race of the respondent was determined by opinion of the census taker.
The option to select more than one race was introduced in The census counted , Native Americans in , , in and , in , including those on and off reservations in the 48 states.
Full-blood individuals are more likely to live on a reservation than mixed-blood individuals. The Navajo , with , full-blood individuals, is the largest tribe if only full-blood individuals are counted; the Navajo are the tribe with the highest proportion of full-blood individuals, The Cherokee have a different history; it is the largest tribe with , individuals, and it has , full-blood individuals.
Many live in poverty. Racism, unemployment, drugs and gangs are common problems which Indian social service organizations such as the Little Earth housing complex in Minneapolis attempt to address.
According to United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,, Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California , , Arizona , and Oklahoma , Census Bureau estimated that about 0.
This population is unevenly distributed across the country. Census Bureau estimated that about less than 1. This population is unevenly distributed across twenty-six states.
They are listed by the proportion of residents citing Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander ancestry, based on estimates:. Below are numbers for U.
There are federally recognized tribal governments  in the United States. These tribes possess the right to form their own governments, to enforce laws both civil and criminal within their lands, to tax, to establish requirements for membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone, and to exclude persons from tribal territories.
Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money this includes paper currency.
In , eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed ancestry. It is estimated that by that figure will rise to nine out of ten.
In addition, there are a number of tribes that are recognized by individual states , but not by the federal government.
The rights and benefits associated with state recognition vary from state to state. Some tribal groups have been unable to document the cultural continuity required for federal recognition.
The Muwekma Ohlone of the San Francisco bay area are pursuing litigation in the federal court system to establish recognition.
Several tribes in Virginia and North Carolina have gained state recognition. Federal recognition confers some benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and permission to apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans.
But gaining federal recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent and continuity of the tribe as a culture.
In July , the Washington State Republican Party adopted a resolution recommending that the federal and legislative branches of the U.
House of Representatives to "terminate" the Cherokee Nation. As of , various Native Americans are wary of attempts by others to gain control of their reservation lands for natural resources, such as coal and uranium in the West.
In the state of Virginia , Native Americans face a unique problem. Until Virginia previously had no federally recognized tribes but the state had recognized eight.
This is related historically to the greater impact of disease and warfare on the Virginia Indian populations, as well as their intermarriage with Europeans and Africans.
Some people confused the ancestry with culture, but groups of Virginia Indians maintained their cultural continuity.
Most of their early reservations were ended under the pressure of early European settlement. Some historians also note the problems of Virginia Indians in establishing documented continuity of identity, due to the work of Walter Ashby Plecker — As registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics, he applied his own interpretation of the one-drop rule , enacted in law in as the state's Racial Integrity Act.
It recognized only two races: "white" and "colored". Plecker, a segregationist , believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" by intermarriage with African Americans ; to him, ancestry determined identity, rather than culture.
He thought that some people of partial black ancestry were trying to " pass " as Native Americans. Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", and gave them lists of family surnames to examine for reclassification based on his interpretation of data and the law.
This led to the state's destruction of accurate records related to families and communities who identified as Native American as in church records and daily life.
By his actions, sometimes different members of the same family were split by being classified as "white" or "colored". He did not allow people to enter their primary identification as Native American in state records.
To achieve federal recognition and its benefits, tribes must prove continuous existence since The federal government has maintained this requirement, in part because through participation on councils and committees, federally recognized tribes have been adamant about groups' satisfying the same requirements as they did.
The Civil Rights Movement was a very significant moment for the rights of Native Americans and other people of color. Native Americans faced racism and prejudice for hundreds of years, and this increased after the American Civil War.
As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic, educational, and social disadvantages for Native Americans, and other people of color living in the south.
In the south segregation was a major problem for Native Americans seeking education, but the NAACP's legal strategy would later change this.
Martin Luther King Jr. In this case, light-complexioned Native children were allowed to ride school buses to previously all white schools, while dark-skinned Native children from the same band were barred from riding the same buses.
He promptly responded and through his intervention the problem was quickly resolved. King would later make trips to Arizona visiting Native Americans on reservations, and in churches encouraging them to be involved in the Civil Rights Movement.
Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race. Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society.
From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population.
Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Indeed, even today we have not permitted ourselves to reject or to feel remorse for this shameful episode.
Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it. We have joined the Poor People's Campaign because most of our families, tribes, and communities number among those suffering most in this country.
We are not begging. We are demanding what is rightfully ours. This is no more than the right to have a decent life in our own communities.
We need guaranteed jobs, guaranteed income, housing, schools, economic development, but most important- we want them on our own terms.
Our chief spokesman in the federal government, the Department of Interior , has failed us. In fact it began failing us from its very beginning.
The Interior Department began failing us because it was built upon and operates under a racist, immoral, paternalistic and colonialistic system.
There is no way to improve upon racism, immorality and colonialism; it can only be done away with. The system and power structure serving Indian peoples is a sickness which has grown to epidemic proportions.
The Indian system is sick. Paternalism is the virus and the secretary of the Interior is the carrier. Native American struggles amid poverty to maintain life on the reservation or in larger society have resulted in a variety of health issues, some related to nutrition and health practices.
The community suffers a vulnerability to and disproportionately high rate of alcoholism. It has long been recognized that Native Americans are dying of diabetes , alcoholism, tuberculosis , suicide , and other health conditions at shocking rates.
Beyond disturbingly high mortality rates, Native Americans also suffer a significantly lower health status and disproportionate rates of disease compared with all other Americans.
Recent studies also point to rising rates of stroke,  heart disease,  and diabetes  in the Native American population.
In a study conducted in —, non-Native Americans admitted they rarely encountered Native Americans in their daily lives.
While sympathetic toward Native Americans and expressing regret over the past, most people had only a vague understanding of the problems facing Native Americans today.
For their part, Native Americans told researchers that they believed they continued to face prejudice , mistreatment, and inequality in the broader society.
Federal contractors and subcontractors, such as businesses and educational institutions, are legally required to adopt equal opportunity employment and affirmative action measures intended to prevent discrimination against employees or applicants for employment on the basis of "color, religion, sex, or national origin".
Self-reporting opens the door to "box checking" by people who, despite not having a substantial relationship to Native American culture, innocently or fraudulently check the box for Native American.
The difficulties that Native Americans face in the workforce, for example, a lack of promotions and wrongful terminations are attributed to racial stereotypes and implicit biases.
Native American business owners are seldom offered auxiliary resources that are crucial for entrepreneurial success. American Indian activists in the United States and Canada have criticized the use of Native American mascots in sports, as perpetuating stereotypes.
This is considered cultural appropriation. There has been a steady decline in the number of secondary school and college teams using such names, images, and mascots.
Some tribal team names have been approved by the tribe in question, such as the Seminole Tribe of Florida 's approving use of their name for the teams of Florida State University.
Controversy has remained regarding teams such as the NFL 's Washington Redskins , whose name is considered to be a racial slur ,  and MLB 's Cleveland Indians , whose usage of a caricature called Chief Wahoo has also faced protest.
Native Americans have been depicted by American artists in various ways at different periods. A number of 19th- and 20th-century United States and Canadian painters, often motivated by a desire to document and preserve Native culture, specialized in Native American subjects.
In the 20th century, early portrayals of Native Americans in movies and television roles were first performed by European Americans dressed in mock traditional attire.
Roles of Native Americans were limited and not reflective of Native American culture. For years, Native people on U. During the years of the series Bonanza — , no major or secondary Native characters appeared on a consistent basis.
The series The Lone Ranger — , Cheyenne — , and Law of the Plainsman — had Native characters who were essentially aides to the central white characters.
This continued in such series as How the West Was Won. These programs resembled the "sympathetic" yet contradictory film Dances With Wolves of , in which, according to Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, the narrative choice was to relate the Lakota story as told through a Euro-American voice, for wider impact among a general audience.
In We Shall Remain , a television documentary by Ric Burns and part of the American Experience series, presented a five-episode series "from a Native American perspective".
It represented "an unprecedented collaboration between Native and non-Native filmmakers and involves Native advisors and scholars at all levels of the project".
Native Americans are often known as Indians or American Indians. The term Native American was introduced in the United States in preference to the older term Indian to distinguish the indigenous peoples of the Americas from the people of India and to avoid negative stereotypes associated with the term Indian.
In , a plurality of indigenous Americans, however, preferred the term American Indian  and many tribes include the word Indian in their formal title.
Criticism of the neologism Native American comes from diverse sources. Russell Means , an American Indian activist, opposed the term Native American because he believed it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians.
He has also argued that the use of the word Indian derives not from a confusion with India but from a Spanish expression en Dios meaning "in God"  [ verification needed ] and a near- homophone of the Spanish word for "Indians", indios.
A U. Gambling has become a leading industry. Casinos operated by many Native American governments in the United States are creating a stream of gambling revenue that some communities are beginning to leverage to build diversified economies.
Some tribes, such as the Winnemem Wintu of Redding, California , feel that casinos and their proceeds destroy culture from the inside out.
These tribes refuse to participate in the gambling industry. Numerous tribes around the country have entered the financial services market including the Otoe-Missouria , Tunica-Biloxi , and the Rosebud Sioux.
Because of the challenges involved in starting a financial services business from scratch, many tribes hire outside consultants and vendors to help them launch these businesses and manage the regulatory issues involved.
Similar to the tribal sovereignty debates that occurred when tribes first entered the gaming industry, the tribes, states, and federal government are currently in disagreement regarding who possesses the authority to regulate these e-commerce business entities.
Prosecution of serious crime, historically endemic on reservations,   was required by the Major Crimes Act,  18 U.
A December 13, New York Times article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5, members on that reservation alone.
As of , a high incidence of rape continued to impact Native American women and Alaskan native women. According to the Department of Justice, 1 in 3 Native women have suffered rape or attempted rape, more than twice the national rate.
Bruce Duthu, "More than 80 percent of Indian victims identify their attacker as non-Indian". Today, other than tribes successfully running casinos, many tribes struggle, as they are often located on reservations isolated from the main economic centers of the country.
The estimated 2. According to the Census , an estimated , Native Americans reside on reservation land. Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development ,  are summarized as follows:.
A major barrier to development is the lack of entrepreneurial knowledge and experience within Indian reservations. Consequently, experiential entrepreneurship education needs to be embedded into school curricula and after-school and other community activities.
This would allow students to learn the essential elements of entrepreneurship from a young age and encourage them to apply these elements throughout life".
Some scholars argue that the existing theories and practices of economic development are not suitable for Native American communities—given the lifestyle, economic, and cultural differences, as well as the unique history of Native American-U.
The federal government fails to consider place-based issues of American Indian poverty by generalizing the demographic. Native land that is owned by individual Native Americans sometimes cannot be developed because of fractionalization.
Fractionalization occurs when a landowner dies, and their land is inherited by their children, but not subdivided.
This means that one parcel might be owned by 50 different individuals. A majority of those holding interest must agree to any proposal to develop the land, and establishing this consent is time-consuming, cumbersome, and sometimes impossible.
Another landownership issue on reservations is checkerboarding, where Tribal land is interspersed with land owned by the federal government on behalf of Natives, individually owned plots, and land owned by non-Native individuals.
This prevents Tribal governments from securing plots of land large enough for economic development or agricultural uses.
This bars Native Americans from getting loans, as there is nothing that a bank can collect if the loan is not paid. Past efforts to encourage landownership such as the Dawes Act resulted in a net loss of Tribal land.
After they were familiarized with their smallholder status , Native American landowners were lifted of trust restrictions and their land would get transferred back to them, contingent on a transactional fee to the federal government.
They claim that because of this history, property rights are foreign to Natives and have no place in the modern reservation system.
Those in favor of property rights cite examples of tribes negotiating with colonial communities or other tribes about fishing and hunting rights in an area.
State-level efforts such as the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act were attempts to contain tribal land in Native American hands.
However, more bureaucratic decisions only expanded the size of the bureaucracy. The knowledge disconnect between the decision-making bureaucracy and Native American stakeholders resulted in ineffective development efforts.
Traditional Native American entrepreneurship does not prioritize profit maximization, rather, business transactions must have align with their social and cultural values.
Often, bureaucratic overseers of development are far removed from Native American communities, and lack the knowledge and understanding to develop plans or make resource allocation decisions.
Such incidences include fabricated reports that exaggerate results. While Native American urban poverty is attributed to hiring and workplace discrimination in a heterogeneous setting,  reservation and trust land poverty rates are endogenous to deserted opportunities in isolated regions.
Historical trauma is described as collective emotional and psychological damage throughout a person's lifetime and across multiple generations.
American Indian youth have higher rates of substance and alcohol abuse deaths than the general population. The culture of Pre-Columbian North America is usually defined by the concept of the culture area, namely a geographical region where shared cultural traits occur.
The northwest culture area, for example shared common traits such as salmon fishing, woodworking, and large villages or towns and a hierarchical social structure.
Though cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes.
Early European American scholars described the Native Americans as having a society dominated by clans.
European colonization of the Americas had a major impact on Native American culture through what is known as the Columbian exchange.
The Columbian exchange , also known as the Columbian interchange , was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, following Christopher Columbus 's voyage.
The impact of the Columbian exchange was not entirely negative however. For example, the re-introduction of the horse to North America allowed the Plains Indian to revolutionize their way of life by making hunting, trading, and warfare far more effective, and to greatly improve their ability to transport possessions and move their settlements.
The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the bison when they first encountered the Europeans. The Spanish reintroduction of the horse to North America in the 17th century and Native Americans' learning to use them greatly altered the Native Americans' culture, including changing the way in which they hunted large game.
Horses became such a valuable, central element of Native lives that they were counted as a measure of wealth. In the early years, as these native peoples encountered European explorers and settlers and engaged in trade, they exchanged food, crafts, and furs for blankets, iron and steel implements, horses, trinkets, firearms, and alcoholic beverages.
Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers 1. Southwest and northern Mexico with one outlier in the Plains. Several families consist of only 2 or 3 languages.
Demonstrating genetic relationships has proved difficult due to the great linguistic diversity present in North America.
Two large super- family proposals, Penutian and Hokan , look particularly promising. However, even after decades of research, a large number of families remain.
A number of English words have been derived from Native American languages. To counteract a shift to English, some Native American tribes have initiated language immersion schools for children, where a native Indian language is the medium of instruction.
For example, the Cherokee Nation initiated a year language preservation plan that involved raising new fluent speakers of the Cherokee language from childhood on up through school immersion programs as well as a collaborative community effort to continue to use the language at home.
There is also a Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, that educates students from pre-school through eighth grade.
Historical diets of Native Americans differed dramatically region to region. Different peoples might have relayed more heavily of agriculture, horticulture, hunting, fishing, or gathering of wild plants and fungi.
Tribes developed diets best suited for their environments. Coastal peoples relied more heavily on sea mammals, fish, and fish eggs, while inland peoples hunted caribou and moose.
In the Eastern Woodlands , early peoples independently invented agricultural and by BCE developed the crops of the Eastern Agricultural Complex , which include squash Cucurbita pepo ssp.
The Sonoran desert region including parts of Arizona and California , part of a region known as Aridoamerica , relied heavily on the tepary bean Phaseolus acutifolius as a staple crop.
This and other desert crops, mesquite bead pods, tunas prickly pear fruit , cholla buds, saguaro cactus fruit, and acorns are being actively promoted today by Tohono O'odham Community Action.
They filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts. Maize or corn , first cultivated in what is now Mexico was traded north into Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica , southwest.
Native farmers practiced polycropping maize, beans, and squash; these crops are known as the Three Sisters.
The beans would replace the nitrogen , which the maize leached from the ground, as well as using corn stalks for support for climbing.
The agriculture gender roles of the Native Americans varied from region to region. In the Southwest area, men prepared the soil with hoes.
The women were in charge of planting , weeding , and harvesting the crops. In most other regions, the women were in charge of most agriculture, including clearing the land.
Clearing the land was an immense chore since the Native Americans rotated fields. Europeans in the eastern part of the continent observed that Native Americans cleared large areas for cropland.
Their fields in New England sometimes covered hundreds of acres. Colonists in Virginia noted thousands of acres under cultivation by Native Americans.
Early farmers commonly used tools such as the hoe , maul , and dibber. The hoe was the main tool used to till the land and prepare it for planting; then it was used for weeding.
The first versions were made out of wood and stone. When the settlers brought iron , Native Americans switched to iron hoes and hatchets.
The dibber was a digging stick, used to plant the seed. Once the plants were harvested, women prepared the produce for eating.
They used the maul to grind the corn into mash. It was cooked and eaten that way or baked as corn bread. Nogle havde skriftsprog, mens de fleste stammer overleverede deres sagn og myter mundtligt.
Mange stammer havde en struktur, hvor magten fulgte et klanmoder-system. Stammerne flyttede rundt efter de enorme bisonflokke, som de jagede med bue og pil fra hesteryg.
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